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2020考研英语时事阅读:科技改造大脑!

时间:2019-06-26 13:58:14 编辑:leichenchen

       考研英语时事阅读的每日积累,对备考2020考研考生,在阅读水平提升方面有很大的作用!下面,北京文都考研网小编整理2020考研英语时事阅读:科技改造大脑!,供考生参考。

2020考研英语时事阅读:科技改造大脑!

【原文节选】

Specific patterns of brain activity are thought to underlie specific processes or computations important for various mental faculties, such as memory. One such “brain signal” that has received a lot of attention recently is known as a “sharp wave ripple”—a short, wave-shaped burst of high-frequency oscillations.

Researchers originally identified ripples in the hippocampus, a region crucially involved in memory and navigation, as central to diverting recollections to long-term memory during sleep. The researchers used electrical pulses to disrupt ripples in rodents’ brains, and showed that, by doing so, performance in a memory task was reduced. However, nobody had manipulated ripples to enhance memory—until now, that is.

The researchers first examined the properties of ripples recorded in rats performing tasks from a database acquired over years of experiments. They found more long-duration ripples occurred when rats had to make their way through mazes than when they were simply exploring or running along tracks. Negotiating mazes required rats to exercise their memories.

文本选自:Scientific American(科学美国人)

作者: Simon Makin

 

【重点单词】

ripple

英 [ˈrɪpl] 美 [ˈrɪpəl]

vt.& vi.使泛起涟漪; (把头发)弄成波浪形; 使作潺潺声;

vt.在…上形成波痕;

vi.发出潺潺声;

n.涟漪,涟波; [物]涟波; 涟波声,潺潺声; (头发等的)波浪形

computation

英 [ˌkɒmpjuˈteɪʃn] 美 [ˌkɑmpjuˈteɪʃn]

n.计算,估计;

faculty

英 [ˈfæklti] 美 [ˈfækəlti]

n.能力,才能; 全体教职员; <英>(大学的)专科,系; 特权,特许

region

英 [ˈri:dʒən] 美 [ˈridʒən]

n.地区,地域,地带; 行政区,管辖区; (大气,海水等的)层,界,境; (学问等的)范围,领域

【参考翻译】

大脑活动的特定模式被认为是训练类似记忆力等各种心智能力时特殊过程和心智计算的重要基础。最近一种被称为“尖波波纹”的“大脑信号”受到了广泛关注,它是一种高频短波脉冲。

海马体是一种对记忆和导航至关重要的大脑区域。研究人员最初发现,海马尖波波纹是在睡眠过程中将回忆转变为长期记忆的核心。研究人员使用电脉冲来扰乱啮齿动物的脑电波,结果表明,这样的操作会使它们在记忆任务中的表现力下降。然而在此之前,没有人通过操控脑电波来增强记忆。

研究人员首先研究了老鼠在执行任务时的脑电波特性,这些记录来自于多年实验建立的数据库。他们发现,当老鼠被迫穿过迷宫时,比它们只是在探路或沿道跑时,所产生的脑电波时长更长。成功走出迷宫考验的是老鼠的记忆力。

       以上是北京文都考研网给出的“2020考研英语时事阅读:科技改造大脑!”,希望上述内容对2020考研学子在英语能力提升方面有所帮助!祝2020考研必胜!

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