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2021考研英语同源外刊3月:蝙蝠为什么会携带病毒?

时间:2020-03-19 11:42:52 编辑:leichenchen

      考研英语阅读能力的提升,需要考生去看一些英语杂志类的文章。接下来,北京文都考研网为2021考研学子们,整理出——2021考研英语同源外刊3月:蝙蝠为什么会携带病毒?供考生参考。

2021考研英语同源外刊3月:蝙蝠为什么会携带病毒?

Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, Marburg, SARS. These are some of the world's scariest viruses. Hemorrhagic fevers like Ebola are extremely fatal -- they kill up to 90 percent of people infected -- while SARS, a coronavirus, has a lower mortality rate but spreads incredibly rapidly.

尼帕病毒,亨德拉病毒,埃博拉病毒,马尔堡病毒,SARS病毒。这些都是这个世界上最可怕的一些病毒。像埃博拉这种导致出血性发热症状的病毒是极为致命的(埃博拉病毒的致死率高达90%),而冠状病毒SARS的致死率较低,但传播速度非常快。

All of these nasty pathogens have surfaced in humans in just the last 50 years, and they are all carried by bats. Which, to be clear, really isn't bats' fault: the recent rise in outbreaks is likely due to humans and our animals creeping ever farther into bats' territory, especially in the tropics.

在过去50年里,所有这些让人讨厌的病毒都被发现在人体上,并且它们全部都是由蝙蝠带来的。需要说明的是,这并非蝙蝠的错:近年来疫情爆发的增加很有可能是由于人类以及我们养殖的动物越来越侵入蝙蝠的领地了,尤其是在热带地区。

In Malaysia, for example, the spread of commercial pig farms into bat-inhabited forests led to the first human outbreak -- via pigs -- of Nipah. And in Australia, human Hendra cases are cropping up as destruction native forests forces fruit bats to feed in suburban gardens.

例如,在马来西亚,由于商业养猪场正在向蝙蝠栖息的森林扩张,从而导致了尼帕病毒通过猪首次在人群中爆发。而在澳大利亚,由于人类破坏了当地的森林,迫使果蝠在郊区的花园觅食,导致亨德拉病毒在人体出现。

But still: bats do appear to carry more human-killing diseases than pretty much any other animal.

不过,蝙蝠似乎的确比其他动物携带了更多的致命病菌。

One big reason is that, with a few notable exceptions, bats love company -- different kinds of bats often roost together in huge numbers and close quarters, which helps viruses spread not just between individuals, but also between species.

一个重要的原因是,除了少数几个种类外,蝙蝠大都喜欢成群结伴——不同种类的蝙蝠常常大量、近距离地聚集在一起,这使得病毒不仅在蝙蝠的个体之间传播,而且会在不同种类的蝙蝠之间传播。

What's more, most infected bats don't die -- they live pretty normal bat lives, flapping around and giving the viruses time to spread. In fact, flight may be the reason bats are so resilient to infection.

更重要的是,大多数受到感染的蝙蝠不会死亡——它们仍然过着正常蝙蝠的生活,飞往四处,从而使病毒得以传播。事实上,飞行可能正是蝙蝠能够抵抗感染的原因。

As a rule, mammals can't produce the immense amount of energy needed for flight without also producing a lot of reactive waste products that damage our DNA.

通常,哺乳动物无法产生飞行所需的大量能量,同时也不会产生大量能够对我们的DNA造成破坏的活性废物。

So when our bat cousins took to the air, they leveled-up their in-flight DNA damage repair kits and other defenses, including specialized cells that keep viral invaders in check.

因此,当蝙蝠飞到空中时,他们会修复因飞行导致的DNA损伤并提高机体的防御系统,其中就会产生能够阻止病毒入侵的特殊细胞。

So bats can survive the deadly viruses -- but what may matter even more, for humans anyway, is how the viruses survive the bats. Nasty as they are, most viruses are also extremely finicky -- in order to thrive, they require the perfectly controlled climate inside a on-the-ground mammal.

所以蝙蝠可以在感染这些致命病毒的情况下存活——但对人类来说,更重要的是病毒如何在蝙蝠体内存活的。大多数病毒虽然令人讨厌,但它们对于环境也是极为挑剔的——为了繁衍,它们需要依靠能够很好地控制体温的陆生哺乳动物。

But when bats take to the air, their internal temperatures cruise to around 40°C. Those frequent in-flight saunas are far too toasty for your average virus, but a few hardy viruses have evolved to tolerate the heat.

但蝙蝠在飞行时,其体温会上升至40℃左右。频繁的飞行桑拿对于普通病毒来说温度太高了,但是一些超级病毒已经能够适应高温环境了。

Which, incidentally, means they can definitely weather a meager human fever. Essentially, flight may have helped bats gain virtual immunity to viruses and trained viruses to be virtually immune to us.

这也意味着它们能够经受住人类的低烧。从本质上来说,飞行可能帮助蝙蝠获得了对病毒的有效免疫,并培养病毒产生了对人类的有效免疫。

So, what should we land-lubbers do? Perhaps we'd be better off leaving bats alone, and trying to control the spread of diseases carried by the flying mammal.

那我们人类该怎么做呢?也许对我们来说最好的方式是远离蝙蝠,并努力控制这种飞行哺乳动物所携带疾病的传播。

 

【词汇】

pathogen [ˈpæθədʒən] n. 病原体;病菌

resilient [rɪˈzɪliənt] adj. 弹性的

invader [ɪnˈveɪdər] n. 侵略者;侵入物

finicky [ˈfɪnɪki] adj. 过分讲究的;挑剔的

      以上是北京文都考研网给出的“2021考研英语同源外刊3月:蝙蝠为什么会携带病毒?”,希望对大家提升考研英语方面有所帮助!祝2021考研顺利通过!

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