咨询热线8:00-24:00 400-0999-680

首页 考试资讯考研英语 2024考研英语同源外刊8月:你喝的牛奶可能不是牛产的?


时间:2023-08-01 21:47:12 编辑:Lcc



It looks like cheese. It smells like cheese. It tastes like cheese (specifically mature cheddar). And it is cheese—at least under the microscope. “Synthetic dairy” is made with the same ingredients as the conventional sort.

它看起来像奶酪,闻起来像奶酪,吃起来也像奶酪(尤其像成熟的切达干酪)。它就是奶酪——至少在显微镜下观察是这么回事。"合成乳制品 "的成分与传统乳制品无异。

But instead of getting the main ingredient from a live ruminant, Better Dairy, a three-year-old British cheesemaker, derives some of it from yeast. These microbes are fed sugar, which they then convert into milk proteins in a process which is similar to brewing.

但是,成立三年的英国奶酪制造商 Better Dairy 并不是从活体反刍动物中获得主要成分,而是从酵母中提取了一些成分。这些微生物通过一个类似于酿酒的过程将糖分转化为牛奶蛋白质。

Plenty of milk alternatives have hit café counters and supermarket shelves in recent years. Plant-based beverages made from things like soyabeans, almonds and oats make up 15% of all milk sales by value in America and 11% in western Europe, reckons the Good Food Institute (GFI), a think-tank.


Yet lovers of real dairy, which plant-derived products cannot quite mimic, still need cows, goats and ewes. “Precision fermentation” companies like Better Dairy hope to change that—and take a fat slice of the $900bn global dairy market.

然而,真正的乳制品爱好者仍然需要奶牛、山羊和绵羊,因为这些植物衍生产品无法完全模仿真正的乳制品。像 Better Dairy 这样的 "精密发酵 "公司希望改变这一现状,并在全球9000亿美元的乳制品市场中分得一杯羹。

Remilk, an Israeli startup, has recently received approval to sell its fare in America, Israel and Singapore. Perfect Day, a Californian one, already sells synthetic milk, ice cream and cream cheese.

以色列初创企业 Remilk 近期获准在美国、以色列和新加坡销售其产品。加州的  Perfect Day 公司已经在销售合成牛奶、冰淇淋和奶油奶酪。

It recently signed contracts to sell its proteins to Nestlé, a food giant, and to Starbucks. In its latest funding round two years ago it raised $350m, valuing it at $1.6bn. All told, precision fermenters have raised nearly $3bn from investors since the start of 2021.

近期,该公司与食品巨头雀巢公司和星巴克签订了蛋白质销售合同。在两年前的近期一轮融资中,该公司筹集了3.5亿美元,估值达16亿美元。总之,自2021 年初以来,精密发酵企业已从投资者那里筹集了近 30 亿美元的资金。

Synthetic dairy dispenses with certain undesirable aspects of milk and milk-making. Lactose, to which some people are allergic, and hormones, which have been linked to some adult diseases, can be stripped out. Fermentation tanks do not need to be pumped full of antibiotics and can be set up anywhere—handy at a time of rising worries about food security and climate change.


The process uses less water and, because it requires less energy and less land, emits fewer greenhouse gases than conventional dairy production, which is responsible for more than 3% of annual planet-warming emissions, almost twice as much as aviation (and a lot of it from belchy cows).

与传统的乳制品生产相比,这种工艺用水更少,而且由于所需的能源和土地更少,排放的温室气体也更少,而传统的乳制品生产每年排放的温室气体占地球变暖排放量的 3% 以上(其中大部分来自打嗝的奶牛),几乎是航空业的两倍。

One challenge for the innovators is winning consumers’ trust. Steel tanks lack the familiarity of cows. A quarter of respondents to a survey in America aren’t keen to try “precision-fermented” fare (which may explain why producers prefer to call it “animal-free”).

创新者面临的一个挑战是赢得消费者的信任。钢罐缺乏奶牛的熟悉感。在美国的一项调查中,四分之一的受访者并不热衷于尝试“精密发酵”食品(这或许解释了为什么生产商更愿意称之为 "非动物来源 "食品)。

Regulators create hurdles, too. Although the startups are confident they will get the green light—the technique is already used for flavourings and insulin—they worry about the time this will take and about labelling disputes.


According to GFI, even in America, the land of free enterprise, it takes about nine months. It Europe it takes twice as long; the first products will not reach European supermarkets until 2024.

据美食研究所称,即使在美国这个实行自由企业制的国度,获批也需要大约9个月的时间。在欧洲则需要两倍的时间;首批产品要到 2024 年才能进入欧洲的超市。

The technology is also a work in progress. For now Better Dairy’s cheddar still uses bovine casein, one of the proteins in milk; the firm is working on a synthetic version that would make its cheese properly vegan. And the process remains costly. A fermenter that can hold about 30 litres of milk can cost £150.000 ($190.000). Buying a cow, which can produce about as much in a day, will set you back £1.600.

这项技术也在不断进步。目前,Better Dairy 的切达干酪仍然使用牛酪蛋白(牛奶中的一种蛋白质);该公司正在研究一种人工合成的酪蛋白,使其干酪成为纯素干酪。而这一工艺的成本仍然很高。一个能装 30 升牛奶的发酵罐需要 15 万英镑(约合19 万美元),而买一头奶牛(一天能产同样多的奶)只要 1600 英镑。



fermentation [ˌfɜːrmenˈteɪʃn] n. 发酵;激动;骚动;动乱

ruminant [ˈrumənənt] n. 反刍动物;好沉思的人

lactose [ˈlækˌtoʊs] n. 乳糖

bovine [ˈboʊvaɪn] adj. 牛的;迟钝的;呆头呆脑的 n. 牛类动物







进考研专属交流群 获取更多考研干货资料



    • 文都考研课代表