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2020考研英语经济学人:同性恋基因真的存在吗?

时间:2019-09-16 16:57:59 编辑:leichenchen

       2020考研学子们,在备考公共课英语科目时,别忘记关注下考研英语经济学人杂志中的文章!因为英语试卷中的阅读理解文章,有些可能会节选自经济学人中的内容。下面,北京文都考研网为帮助考生提升英语水平,整理出英语经济学人:同性恋基因真的存在吗?供考生参考。

2020考研英语经济学人:同性恋基因真的存在吗?

A scientific study has established that there is no “gay gene”

一项科学研究证实,“同性恋基因”并不存在

But biology does in part determine sexual orientation

但是生物学还是在一定程度上决定了性取向

In 1993 A region of the human genome called Xq28 was linked to male homosexuality, and the controversial notion of a “gay gene” was born. Those research findings have not been replicated.

1993年,人们发现人类基因组中一个被称为Xq28的片段与男性同性恋有关,“同性恋基因”这一存在争议的概念由此诞生。这些研究结果后来并未被重复出来。

But it was never going to be that simple: decades of genetic research have shown that almost every human characteristic is a complex interplay of genes and environmental factors. A new study, published in Science this week, confirms that this is the case for human sexuality, too.

但事情从来没有那么简单:人类几十年来对基因的研究表明,人类几乎所有的特征都是基因与环境因素共同作用的结果。本周发表在《科学》杂志上的一项新的研究证实,人类的性取向也是如此。

The study, the largest ever into this difficult topic, was conducted by an international group of scientists working with 23andMe, a personal genomics firm.

一个国际科学家小组与个人基因组公司23andMe就这一难题合作开展了这项迄今为止规模最大的研究。

It used what is called a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 408,995 individuals in the UK Biobank, a British health resource, and 68,527 American 23andMe users—all of whom remained anonymous and consented to the study.

该研究对英国生物银行(一家英国的健康资源库)的408,995名个体和美国 23andMe 的68,527名用户进行了所谓的全基因组关联研究(GWAS),所有被研究者都是匿名的、并且同意参与这项研究。

A GWAS involves scanning a person’s DNA for tiny variations in the genetic code (simple changes in the As, Ts, Gs or Cs) that correlate with a given trait.

全基因组关联研究是扫描一个人的DNA,以从中找出与特定特征相关的遗传密码的微小变化(只是A、T、G、C碱基的不同)。

The participants were divided on the basis of whether they answered yes or no to the question “Have you ever had sex with someone of the same sex?”—a woolly proxy for sexual orientation, even in the absence of little white lies.

参与者会被问及“你曾经和同性发生过性关系吗?”(即使在不说谎的情况下,这也只是个模糊的性取向指代性问题。)研究者会根据是与否的回答将其分为两组。

The figures the GWAS produced, therefore, relate only to a single act, not to whether someone identifies as gay.

因此,全基因组关联研究得出的数据只与单一行为有关,而无法认定某人是否为同性恋。

The researchers found five genetic markers that were significantly associated with a reported homosexual act by one of the participants in the study.

研究人员发现,有五种基因标志物与参与者报告的同性恋行为显著相关。

None of those markers was on the X or Y sex chromosomes and their total combined effect accounted for less than 1% of the variance. This is because the behaviour is the result of the aggregate effort of hundreds or thousands of genes, whose individual effects are infinitesimally weak.

这些标志物都不在X或Y染色体上,其总的综合效应占总变异的不到1%。原因在于这种行为是成百上千个基因共同作用的结果,而这些基因的单个效应是及其微弱的。

Totting up all the thousands of tested genetic variants accounted for between 8% and 25% of the variation in people’s self-reported homosexual acts. These variants also overlapped with other traits, such as a smoking and an openness to new experiences.

把所有经过测试的成千上万种基因变异加起来,就占到人们自述的同性恋行为变异的8%到25%。这些变异同样也导致一些其他特征,比如爱抽烟以及乐于接受新事物。

Interestingly, only about 60% of the genetic variants identified in the study were shared by both sexes. Most behaviours show more overlap between the sexes than this, intimating that male and female homosexuality, or at least sexual adventures, may be quite different.

有趣的是,这项研究所发现的基因变异只有60%左右为两性所共有的。大多数行为在性别上有更大的重叠,这暗示着男同和女同(或者至少是性冒险)可能是完全不同的。

David Curtis of University College London notes that what overlap there is “suggests that there could be specific factors affecting same-sex attraction rather than simply being attracted to males versus being attracted to females.”

伦敦大学学院的大卫·柯蒂斯指出,重叠现象“表明可能存在特定的因素影响着同性之间的吸引力,而不是简单地被男性还是女性吸引的问题。”

 

【词汇】

orientation [orɪɛn'teʃən] n. 方向;定向;适应;情况介绍

homosexuality [,homəsɛkʃʊ'æləti] n. 同性恋

anonymous [ə'nɑnəməs] adj. 匿名的,无名的;无个性特征的

infinitesimally [infini'tesiməli] adv. 极小地

tot up 合计

       以上是北京文都考研网分享的——“2020考研英语经济学人:同性恋基因真的存在吗?”,希望对2020考研者在复习英语上面有所帮助!祝2020考研凯旋归来!

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