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2021考研英语同源外刊3月:人类的体温正在下降吗?

时间:2020-03-19 11:12:09 编辑:leichenchen

      考研英语阅读能力的提升,需要考生去看一些英语杂志类的文章。接下来,北京文都考研网为2021考研学子们,整理出——2021考研英语同源外刊3月:人类的体温正在下降吗?供考生参考。

2021考研英语同源外刊3月:人类的体温正在下降吗?

A new study finds that they have dropped, on average, over the past century and a half

一项新的研究发现,在过去的一个半世纪里,人类的平均体温下降了

It is one of those facts of life that we learn early and don’t forget: normal body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. But a new study in eLife argues that that number is outdated.

这是我们很早就学到、并且不会忘记的一个生活常识:人体的正常体温是98.6℉。但《eLife 》杂志上的一项新的研究认为,这个体温值已经过时了。

The figure was probably accurate in 1851, when German doctor Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich found it to be the average armpit temperature of 25,000 patients. Times have changed, though, according to the recent paper: the average American now seems to run more than a degree F lower.

这个体温值在1851年可能是准确的,当时德国医生卡尔·莱因霍尔德·奥古斯特·维德利希统计了2.5万名患者的温度得出了这一平均值。然而,据一篇最新的论文显示,时代已经发生变化了:美国人现在的平均体温下降了不止1℉。

Stanford University researchers looked at data from Civil War soldiers and veterans and two more recent cohorts to confirm that body temperatures among American men averaged around 98.6 degrees F back then but have steadily fallen over time and that temperatures among women have fallen as well. Their data find an average for men and women of 97.5 degrees F.

斯坦福大学的研究人员对来自南北战争士兵和退伍军人的数据以及最近的两组数据进行了分析,确认当时美国男性的平均体温约为98.6℉,但随着时间的推移,美国男性的体温一直在稳步下降,女性的体温同样也在下降。据他们的数据显示,男性和女性整体而言的平均体温为97.5℉。

The study suggests that in the process of altering our surroundings, we have also altered ourselves, says senior author Julie Parsonnet of Stanford. “We’ve changed in height, weight—and we’re colder,” she says. “I don’t really know what [the new measurements] mean in terms of health, but they’re telling us something. They’re telling us that we are changing and that what we’ve done in the last 150 years has made us change in ways we haven’t before.”

斯坦福大学的资深学者朱莉·帕森内特说,这项研究表明,我们在改造环境的同时也在对自身进行改造。她说:“我们的身高、体重都发生了变化,并且我们的身体变得越来越冷了,我真的不知道(新的体温标准)对健康来说究竟意味着什么,但它们正在向我们传达一些信息。它们是在告诉我们,我们正在发生变化,我们在过去150年所做的事情正在使我们以前所未有的方式发生变化。”

The researchers did not determine the cause of the apparent temperature drop, but Parsonnet thinks it could be a combination of factors, including warmer clothing, indoor temperature controls, a more sedentary way of life and—perhaps most significantly—a decline in infectious diseases. She notes that people today are much less likely to have infections such as tuberculosis, syphilis or gum disease.

研究人员尚未确定体温明显下降的原因,但帕森内特认为这可能是多种因素综合作用的结果,其中包括衣着更加暖和、对室内温度的调控、久坐的生活方式、以及(也许是最重要的)传染病的有效控制。她指出,如今,人们感染肺结核、梅毒或齿龈炎的可能性要小得多了。

 

【词汇】

armpit [ˈɑːrmpɪt] n. 腋窝

measurement [ˈmeʒərmənt] n. 测量;度量;尺寸

sedentary [ˈsednteri] adj. 久坐的;坐惯的;静坐的

tuberculosis [tuːˌbɜːrkjəˈloʊsɪs] n. 肺结核;结核病

      以上是北京文都考研网给出的“2021考研英语同源外刊3月:人类的体温正在下降吗?”,希望对大家提升考研英语方面有所帮助!祝2021考研顺利通过!

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