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2020考研英语经济学人:又一种病毒将被人类彻底消灭

时间:2019-09-11 15:19:29 编辑:leichenchen

       2020考研学子们,在备考公共课英语科目时,别忘记关注下考研英语经济学人杂志中的文章!因为英语试卷中的阅读理解文章,有些可能会节选自经济学人中的内容。下面,北京文都考研网为帮助考生提升英语水平,整理出英语经济学人:又一种病毒将被人类彻底消灭,供考生参考。

2020考研英语经济学人:又一种病毒将被人类彻底消灭

Eradicating Polio is hard. It is even harder when politicians and imams fan the conspiracy theory that the polio vaccine is part of a Western plot to sterilise Muslims, as happened for several years in northern Nigeria.

想要消灭脊髓灰质炎很难。而当政治家和部落领袖们煽动着阴谋论(他们宣称脊髓灰质炎疫苗是西方消灭穆斯林阴谋的一部分,正如尼日利亚北部多年来发生的那样)时,就更是难上加难了。

So in 2015 Nigeria’s president, Muhammadu Buhari, decided to set an example. He gave the vaccine to one of his grandchildren on television, before rallying politicians and tribal leaders to join the campaign.

因此,在2015年,尼日利亚总统穆罕默杜·布哈里决定树立一个榜样。他在电视上给他的孙子接种了脊髓灰质炎疫苗,随后召集政客和部落领袖们加入这场运动。

His efforts, and those of hundreds of thousands of volunteers, have paid off. On August 21st Nigeria marked three years since its last documented case of wild polio. That means the country is set to be declared polio-free by the World Health Organisation-backed Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

他和成千上万名志愿者的努力最终得到了回报。今年8月21日,尼日利亚距离上一次记录在案的野生型脊髓灰质炎病例已经过去了三年。这意味着尼日利亚将被世界卫生组织所支持的全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动宣布为无脊髓灰质炎国家。

If that happens, probably next year, all of Africa will be officially free of the virus. Polio will remain in only Afghanistan and Pakistan; and one day it will be completely eradicated, like smallpox was in 1980.

如果真的如此,整个非洲很有可能在明年将正式摆脱这种病毒。届时,脊髓灰质炎将只存在于阿富汗和巴基斯坦;而且总有一天人类将把它彻底消灭,就像1980年消灭天花病毒那样。

Mass vaccination in Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, was a logistical challenge. Health workers went village to village in round after round of campaigns. They were stationed in markets and at border crossings.

尼日利亚是非洲人口最多的国家,大规模接种疫苗是一项后勤上的挑战。在一轮又一轮的运动中,卫生工作者要一个村一个村地去走访。他们会驻扎在市场和边境口岸。

To reach remote spots, they got creative. Satellite imaging was used to map the islands around Lake Chad. Then health workers went by canoe to deliver the vaccine.

为了前往偏远地区,他们变得富有创造力。他们利用卫星成像来绘制乍得湖周围岛屿的地图。然后卫生工作者划着独木舟去运送疫苗。

Violence was a big problem. Polio was last found in a child in Borno, a north-eastern state ravaged by Boko Haram. The jihadist group prefers kidnapping children to vaccinating them.

暴力是个大问题。最近一次发现脊髓灰质炎病毒是在博尔诺州的一名儿童身上。位于尼日利亚东北部的博尔诺州饱受博科圣地组织的蹂躏。该圣战组织更喜欢绑架儿童,而非为他们接种疫苗。

It helped spread the myth about sterilisation. So brave health workers have been rushing into areas from which it retreats (even temporarily). An improving security situation has helped. In 2015 about 600,000 children were not accessible. Now that number is under 100,000.

为了延续消灭病毒的神话,勇敢的卫生工作者们已经涌入了圣战组织撤离的地区(有些地区只是暂时撤离)。安全形势的改善对疫苗的接种有所帮助。2015年,约有60万名儿童没能接种疫苗。如今,仅有不到10万名儿童无法接种。

Volunteers trained to spot the virus have been crucial in preventing outbreaks—not just of polio. In 2014 they helped trace nearly 900 people who may have been exposed to Ebola after an infected man from Liberia arrived in Lagos. Nigeria quickly contained the virus, which killed eight in the country.

接受过识别病毒训练的志愿者对于防止疾病(不仅仅是脊髓灰质炎)的爆发是至关重要的。2014年,一名来自利比里亚的埃博拉病毒感染者抵达拉各斯后,志愿者们帮助追踪了近900名可能接触过该病毒的人。尼日利亚很快便控制住了导致该国8人死亡的埃博拉病毒的传播。

The big worry now is that polio from Afghanistan and Pakistan may be brought to Africa and lead to new outbreaks. In the past polio from India made its way to Angola and Congo after they were declared polio-free.

现在最大的担忧是,从阿富汗和巴基斯坦带来的脊髓灰质炎病毒可能会导致新疫情的爆发。过去,在安哥拉和刚果宣布消灭脊髓灰质炎病毒后,印度的脊髓灰质炎病毒又传入了这两个国家。

The strain from Pakistan is already travelling: it was recently found in sewage in Iran. That is one reason why it is important to maintain high vaccination rates in Africa.

来自于巴基斯坦的脊髓灰质炎病毒已经在传播了:最近人们在伊朗的污水中发现了这种病毒。这就是为什么在非洲保持高疫苗接种率很重要的原因之一。

 

【词汇】

vanquish ['væŋkwɪʃ] vt. 征服;击败;克服;抑制

conspiracy [kən'spɪrəsi] n. 阴谋;共谋;阴谋集团

eradicate [ɪ'rædɪket] vt. 根除,根绝;消灭

smallpox ['smɔl'pɑks] n. 天花

vaccinate ['væksə'net] vi. 接种疫苗 vt. 给…注射疫苗

sewage ['sʊɪdʒ] n. 污水;下水道;污物

       以上是北京文都考研网分享的——“2020考研英语经济学人:又一种病毒将被人类彻底消灭”,希望对2020考研者在复习英语上面有所帮助!祝2020考研凯旋归来!

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