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2022考研英语经济学人:取消高考能让大学录取公平吗?

时间:2021-05-20 10:13:53 编辑:leichenchen

      考研英语阅读能力想提升,需要考生不断地日积月累阅读文章才能感受到进步!接下来,小编为帮助考生补习英语阅读能力的不足,特意整理——2022考研英语经济学人:取消高考能让大学录取公平吗?供考生参考。

2022考研英语经济学人:取消高考能让大学录取公平吗?

The pandemic has played havoc with college admissions. With many testing sites closed, over 1,400 colleges and universities (about a third of American degree-granting institutions) no longer required admissions exams for first-year students applying for autumn 2021.

新冠肺炎疫情严重影响了大学招生。随着许多考点的关闭,超过1400所学院和大学(约占美国学位授予机构的三分之一)不再要求申请2021年秋季入学的大一新生参加入学考试。

Many made the submission of test scores optional; 69 did not consider test scores at all. More than 1,300 colleges have already announced “test-optional” policies for 2022.

许多学校将提交考试成绩作为一个可选项;69所院校则完全忽略考试成绩。超过1300所高校宣布将在2022年招生中采取“非强制性考试”政策。

The coronavirus has hastened a trend already under way. Starting with a handful of institutions in 2005, and growing to over 1,000 (including half of the top 100 liberal-arts colleges) in 2019, many had gone test-optional before the pandemic.

新冠病毒使一种现有趋势得到了加速。从2005年的少数几所院校,到2019年的1000多所(包括前100所文科类院校中的一半),许多高校在疫情爆发前就已经开始实施非强制性考试政策。

In May 2020 the governing body of the University of California, a public university with over 280,000 students on nine undergraduate campuses, voted to phase out the two main admissions tests, SAT and ACT, over five years.

2020年5月,加州大学理事会投票决定在5年内逐步淘汰两种主流的入学考试(即SAT和ACT)。加州大学作为一所公立大学,在9个本科校区拥有超过28万名学生。

But a lawsuit sped up the timeline. A preliminary injunction prevented the university from using the SAT or ACT in admissions or scholarship decisions this year.

而一场诉讼加快了加州大学这项决定的进程。一项预先禁令禁止该校在今年的招生或奖学金评定中使用SAT或ACT成绩。

Opponents argue that these tests are biased. SAT and ACT scores are highly correlated with income, race and gender. Despite earning higher maths grades in school, women perform worse than men on the maths section of the SAT by 18 points (out of 800) on average.

反对者认为这些考试是存在偏见的。SAT和ACT考试成绩与收入、种族和性别高度相关。虽然女生上学期间的数学成绩更好,但她们在SAT考试中数学部分的平均分数要比男性低18分(总分为800分)。

A student with an annual family income below $20,000 can expect to score 137 points lower on average (also out of 800) on the reading section of the SAT than a student with a family income above $200,000.

家庭年收入低于2万美元的学生在SAT考试中阅读部分的平均分数要比家庭年收入超过20万美元的学生低137分(总分同样为800分)。

Overall, black and Hispanic students perform worse than white students, and white students perform worse than Asian students. Similar concerns apply to the ACT.

总的来说,黑人和西班牙裔学生的成绩要比白人学生差,而白人学生的成绩要比亚裔学生差。ACT考试分数的情况与之类似。

Janet Godwin, CEO of ACT, which tests about half of all American high-school graduates, says the test outcomes are a symptom of systemic inequality, not a cause.

ACT的首席执行官珍妮特·戈德温表示,大约一半的美国高中毕业生会参加ACT考试,考试结果是系统性不平等的表现,而非原因。

She admits that the results are correlated with income, but she attributes this to the fact that a child living in a high-income zip code will have access to better resources. ACT has partnered with educational groups to provide access to test-preparatory resources to help close this gap.

她承认学生的考试成绩与家庭收入相关,但她认为,这是因为生活在高收入地区的孩子更有机会获得更好的教育资源。ACT已与教育团体展开合作,为广大学生提供备考资源,以帮助缩小这一差距。

Rather than tinkering, advocates for more equitable admissions are calling for an overhaul. Some have suggested a lottery among students who meet minimum qualifications.

主张更公平录取的人呼吁进行彻底改革,而非小修小补。一些人建议对满足最低录取条件的学生进行抽签录取。

Universities say they could admit “three times as many students without having to lower standards at all,” says Jesse Rothstein, a professor of public policy at University of California, Berkeley.

加州大学伯克利分校的公共政策学教授杰西·罗斯坦说,各大院校表示,他们可以“在不降低标准的情况下将招生规模扩大至原来的三倍”。

“Why don’t we put our money where our mouth is?” Others recommend a more intricate process, such as the “match” system used to admit medical-school graduates into residency programmes.

还有一些人则建议采取更为复杂的程序(比如用于招收医学院毕业生进入实习项目的“匹配”系统),“我们为什么不把钱花在刀刃上呢?”

Yet overhauling admissions may have its limits. “We aspire towards a meritocracy, but the reality is we have systemic inequality in our society,” says Mr Pérez. “Until we fix the inequities at the lower levels, we're not even going to begin to make a dent in higher education.”

然而,招生改革可能有其局限性。佩雷斯说:“我们渴望实行精英制,但现实是,我们的社会存在系统性不平等,除非我们能够解决较低层次的不平等问题,否则我们将很难在高等教育方面有所作为。”

 

重难点词汇:

havoc [ˈhævək] n. 大破坏;浩劫;蹂躏 v. 损毁

injunction [ɪnˈdʒʌŋkʃn] n. 禁令;命令;劝告

tinker [ˈtɪŋkər] v. (徒劳地或马虎地)小修补

overhaul [ˈoʊvərˌhɔːl] v. 彻底检修;全面改革

intricate [ˈɪntrɪkət] adj. 复杂的;错综的

meritocracy [ˌmerɪˈtɑːkrəsi] n. 英才制度;精英管理的社会

      以上是“2022考研英语经济学人:取消高考能让大学录取公平吗?”,希望对2022考研考生们,在英语阅读上面有所帮助!祝2022考研顺利!

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